ALD

Processing
Vacuum-based

Key sample information

Maximum Sample Size: 156 mm x 156 mm  /  200 mm diameter
Maximum Sample Height:  <1 cm (can be higher for specific request)

Different chambers available (no contamination issues)

Materials

Al2O3, AlOx, AlNx, AZO, NbOx, NiO, SnO2, SiOx, SnOx, TaOx, TiO2, TiOx, TZO, ZnMgO, ZnO, ZnO:Al, ZnO:Ti, ZnSnOx, ZrOx

List can be extended upon specific request

More information about PV material.

Practical information

Manufacturer: BENEQ  / Picosun
Model: TFS200  /  Sunale Advanced  PE-ALD
Minimum training time to use the machine: In-depth training

Four ALD deposition chambers for specific experiments

More information our training policy.

What is it for?

ALD allows extreme conformal and uniform film deposition on a large variety of substrates. ALD can even be done at room temperature (if adapted precursors are available), maximum heating limit of the tool is around 400°C (often already too high for many precursors)
For oxide processes (such as Al2O3), 3 oxidizing species are available: H2O, ozone (~10%), O2-plasma.
For the plasma process there are 4 lines: NH3, O2, H2/N2, H2O/N2)
NH3 is also available for thermal ALD conditions (without a plasma-enhanced process)
Load lock: allows (un)loading samples to the single-wafer chamber without air break

Deposition of conformal thin films on substrates
Deposition layer by layer of materials
Buffer and TCO layers for CIGS solar cells
Passivation layers for silicon cells, perovskites cells, tandem cells
Only for thin films < 500 nm
Quartz microbalance upgrade

How does it work?

ALD can be defined as a film deposition technique that is based on the sequential use of self-terminating gas–solid reactions.
The growth of material layers by ALD consists of repeating the following characteristic four steps:
• Step #1: a self-terminating reaction of the first reactant (Reactant A),
• Step #2: a purge or evacuation—to remove the non-reacted reactants and the gaseous reaction by-products,
• Step #3: a self-terminating reaction of the second reactant (Reactant B)—or another treatment to activate the surface again for the reaction of the first reactant,
• Step #4: a purge or evacuation.

Steps #1 to #4 constitute a reaction cycle.

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