IPVF Internship – Optimization of hybrid thermal co-evaporation coupling slot-die coating for highly efficient perovskite solar devices


Function: Master student

Contract Type: Internship

Starting Date: March 2022

Working Place: Palaiseau, France (Paris-Saclay technology cluster)

Duration: 6 months

Education: Master 2




Become an actor of the Energy Transition by joining a team driven by innovation and impact to address today’s most decisive challenges.


IPVF – Institut Photovoltaïque d’Île-de-France, is a global Research, Innovation and Education center, which mission is to accelerate energy transition through science & technology.
Gathering industrial PV leaders (EDF, TotalEnergies, Air Liquide, Horiba and Riber) and world-renowned academic research organizations (CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique), multi-disciplinary and international IPVF teams conduct research for clean energy technologies. Supported by the French State, IPVF is labelled Institute for Energy Transition (ITE).


IPVF at a glance:
• An ambitious Scientific and Technological Program (6 programs divided in 24 work packages): from tandem solar cell technologies to economy & market assessment, state-of-the art characterization, photocatalysis and breakthrough concepts.
• State-of-the-art technological platform (8,000m²): more than 100 cutting-edge equipments worth €30M, located in cleanrooms (advanced characterization, materials deposition, prototypes for fabrication, modelling…).
• High-standard Education program (M.S. and PhD students).





Hybrid deposition approach for perovskite solar device has recently gained much attention due to the high uniformity and conformity, high throughput, scalability and non-planar-surface compatibility. This technique combines a dry evaporation technique with a wet solution process (such as spin-coating, dip-coating etc.) to convert the precursors into perovskite. The special feature of the hybrid dry/wet deposition route allows the fabrication of highly efficient two-terminal textured perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells with PCE of over 25 %. However, the wet techniques utilized in the second step such as spin-coating or dip-coating wastes too much solution to be relevant to the cost competitiveness. Moreover, the scalability of these methods is still on debate. To bypass these issues, slot-die coating, an excellent candidate for the low-cost perovskite deposition on the large area, has been used to reach 19 % PCE in small-area cells and over 15 % in minimodules in which perovskite was deposited using all-wet method. Nonetheless, to the best of our knowledge, reports on the coupling between thermal evaporation and the slot-die coating for upscaling perovskite deposition are found to be very scarce. Therefore, the perovskite formation, device performances and finally the assessment of the scalability need further investigation.

The main objective of this internship is to further study the impacts of thermal evaporation and coating parameters on the perovskite film quality and on the ultimate perovskite solar devices. This work will pave the way to the implementation of hybrid-deposited perovskite into high-efficiency two-terminal perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells.


Keywords: Mixed-halide perovskite, hybrid perovskite deposition technique, perovskite solar devices




The candidate will be involved in the elaboration of mixed-halide halogenated perovskite layers using two-step co-evaporation/slot-die coating method.

He/she will evaluate the influence of the deposition (and post-deposition) parameters of Lead (II) iodide (PbI2) and Cesium-based halides in the co-evaporation step as well as in the slot-die coating step on the ultimate perovskite films.

Different techniques such as (GI)XRD, SEM, AFM, photoluminescence (both steady-state and time-resolved), Raman spectroscopy and spectrophotometry will be employed to analyze the composition, morphology, and optoelectronic properties of perovskite films. The candidate will measure the output performances (efficiency, steady-state stability…) of single junction solar devices integrated the optimized perovskite absorber by performing J-V electrical characterization and External Quantum Efficiency (EQE) measurements. He/she will finally demonstrate efficient cell devices (with PCE over 16 %) and functioning minimodules with an aperture area >12 cm².





  • Master 2 in Energy / Material sciences
  • Physics of semiconductors / solid-state physics


  • Cleanroom experiences
  • Strong experimental and analysis skills
  • Proficient English required


Self-management skills

  • Rigorous and independent
  • Teamwork
  • Self-motivate




Cover letter, CV and last academic transcripts to be sent to: van-son.nguyen@ipvf.fr

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Feel free to contact us for more information about our offers.

  • +33(0)1 69 86 58 60
  • contact@ipvf.fr
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